What's The Free Papua Movement?
Lengthy before the Free Papua Movement, like so many trendy nations, West Papua is a product of colonialism. Western New Guinea was colonized by the Dutch at first, while the East was ultimately colonized by the Germans in the late 1800s. (With the south-east also being annexed by Britain, because in fact the Brits had to be concerned somewhere.) As with many other things, this difficult mix of colonialism was shook up by WW1 and the Treaty of Versailles, granting the German territory to Australia, who by this point had been administering the British territory as well. This split the country quite evenly down the middle between the Dutch and the Australians.
In 1975, the Jap portion of the island was granted independence and have become Papua New Guinea. Meanwhile, the Dutch administered western portion had the unlucky situation of pushing to turn out to be impartial proper next to independent Indonesia. The Dutch had been gradually loosening their grip for some time and in 1961, a nationwide parliament had been elected with intentions to declare independence in 1970. Indonesia meanwhile had fashioned largely out of the Dutch East Indies, an amalgamation of a lot of the Dutch island colonies in that area, of which Papua was one. This, in Indonesia’s eyes, gave them declare to Papua despite the enormously different political history.
Indonesian president Sukarno pushed heavily for intervention to claim West Papua, although unwillingness to go to war outright prevented an invasion. Ultimately, Sukarno sought the US to serve as a mediator, leveraging their position as a ‘non-aligned’ country to gain favour, implicitly suggesting that they could ally with the united states if not appeased. The Dutch relented, allowing Indonesia to assume administration of West Papua until such a time as a referendum could be carried out, stirring the start of what would turn out to be the Free Papua Movement. This referendum, the ‘Act of Free Choice’, was to find out the way forward for the country and contain a vote on behalf of the whole country. This is, in spite of everything, how referendums function.
Under the new, decidedly a lot more genocidal leader Suharto took over in Indonesia, it was suddenly decided that the New Guineans have been ‘too primitive’ for democracy and instead a traditional Indonesian ‘election of elders’ was performed. This election, held August 2nd 1969, concerned only a hand-picked grouping of just over a thousand West Papuans were allowed to vote. The vote was suspiciously unanimous, supporting integration with Indonesia and thus leading to West Papua becoming the 26th official province of Indonesia. This has understandably led to the Act of Free Alternative being labelled the ‘Act of No Selection’, inevitably spurring the Free Papua Movement. With that out of the way, let’s move on.
The Free Papua Movement (Organisasi Papua Merdeka – OPM) was formally founded in December of 1963, not lengthy after Indonesia assumed administration of the area however earlier than formal annexation. December first was declared ‘Papuan Independence Day’ and common flag elevating ceremonies started by separatist teams on this date, making up a big portion of the country. When their efforts have been ignored and West Papua was formally annexed by Indonesia, things swiftly began to heat up. On July 1st 1971, three Free Papua Movement commanders declared the Republic of West Papua and drafted a constitution, a functionally symbolic move for which the Papuan individuals would work towards, equally to the Irish proclamation of 1916 which provided a basis for the independence movement of the early 1920s.
From 1976, the Free Papua Movement went on the offensive, threatening an Indonesian mining company for funding and finally conducting mass sabotage campaigns towards the corporate throughout the summer of 1977. In 1982, the Free Papua Movement Revolutionary Council was further established, seeking to gain recognition from worldwide our bodies and grant their battle additional legitimacy. This finally led to a 1984 offensive towards the Indonesian military, finally ending with the Free Papua Movement being pushed out of the country into Papua New Guinea.
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